The most used control would probably be a Fanuc. However, if you want to run from a PC that would be out. Aerotech, http://www.aerotech.com/, has a PC based programmable control system and a complete line of linear and rotary stages that will allow you to create a custom built machine. These components could be configured for any imaginable positioning task, including scanning.
Whileone can do what you are asking, it would be cheaper to buy a machine ready made. You are not specific on the size of the job or horsepower requirements. Anything beyondvery light cuts will require significant machine base structure.
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That depends on what you are going to use it for. Are you more about figuring out how a CNC operates or the use and funtion of it its self? Like in the link I sent you there are a lot of people building machines and thats what their into. Most newer machine and some older machines are equipt with probes that can check position of a hole or surface, but as to them outputting data like a cmm you need to digitize with the machine. You can buy this setup to fit on a CNC andit will output data some what like a cmmbut I dont't think that this is what you are looking for as that this is mostly used to reverse engineer a part? How and what you build into your machine could give you what you are looking for. I would post on the link that I sent you and those guys will fill your ear full of ideas